9.23.2017 | Kaitlyn Leapman
Tofranil (Imipramine) Side Effects, Interactions, Warning, Dosage
Tofranil (imipramine hydrochloride) Tablets USP 10 mg, 25 mg, and 50 mg.
The following symptoms, anxiety, agitation, panic attacks, insomnia, irritability, hostility, aggressiveness, impulsivity, akathisia (psychomotor restlessness), hypomania, and mania, have been reported in adult and pediatric patients being treated with antidepressants for major depressive disorder as well as for other indications, both psychiatric and nonpsychiatric. Although a causal link between the emergence of such symptoms and either the worsening of depression and/or the emergence of suicidal impulses has not been established, there is concern that such symptoms may represent precursors to emerging suicidality.
Nausea and vomiting, anorexia, epigastric distress, diarrhea; peculiar taste, stomatitis, abdominal cramps, black tongue.
Bone marrow depression including agranulocytosis ; eosinophilia ; purpura ; thrombocytopenia.
Lower dosages are also recommended for outpatients as compared to hospitalized patients who will be under close supervision. Following remission, maintenance medication may be required for a longer period of time, at the lowest dose that will maintain remission. Dosage should be initiated at a low level and increased gradually, noting carefully the clinical response and any evidence of intolerance. Lower dosages are recommended for elderly patients and adolescents.
Tablets 10 mg - triangular, biconvex, coral-reddish brown, sugar-coated tablet, imprinted with M on one side and “10” on the other side in black.
Dry mouth, and, rarely, associated sublingual adenitis ; blurred vision, disturbances of accommodation, mydriasis ; constipation, paralytic ileus ; urinary retention, delayed micturition, dilation of the urinary tract.
Short-term studies did not show an increase in the risk of suicidality with antidepressants compared to placebo in adults beyond age 24; there was a reduction in risk with antidepressants compared to placebo in adults aged 65 and older. Anyone considering the use of imipramine hydrochloride or any other antidepressant in a child, adolescent, or young adult must balance this risk with the clinical need. Imipramine hydrochloride is not approved for use in pediatric patients ( see WARNINGS, Clinical Worsening and Suicide Risk; PATIENT INFORMATION ; and PRECAUTIONS, Pediatric Use). Patients of all ages who are started on antidepressant therapy should be monitored appropriay and observed closely for clinical worsening, suicidality, or unusual changes in behavior. Antidepressants increased the risk compared to placebo of suicidal thinking and behavior (suicidality) in children, adolescents, and young adults in short-term studies of major depressive disorder (MDD) and other psychiatric disorders. Families and caregivers should be advised of the need for close observation and communication with the prescriber. Depression and certain other psychiatric disorders are themselves associated with increases in the risk of suicide.
The three strengths of Tofranil (imipramine hydrochloride USP) are available as follows:
Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F).
Jaundice (simulating obstructive); altered liver function; weight gain or loss; perspiration ; flushing; urinary frequency; drowsiness, dizziness, weakness and fatigue; headache; parotid swelling; alopecia ; proneness to falling.
These usually disappear during continued drug administration or when dosage is decreased. Other reactions which have been reported include constipation, convulsions, anxiety, emotional instability, syncope, and collapse. All of the adverse effects reported with adult use should be considered. Note - In enuretic children treated with Tofranil the most common adverse reactions have been nervousness, sleep disorders, tiredness, and mild gastrointestinal disturbances.
Tofranil is supplied in tablet form for oral administration.
The plasma concentration of imipramine may increase when the drug is given concomitantly with hepatic enzyme inhibitors (e.g., cimetidine, fluoxetine) and decrease by concomitant administration with hepatic enzyme inducers (e.g., barbiturates, phenytoin), and adjustment of the dosage of imipramine may therefore be necessary.
A daily dose greater than 75 mg does not enhance efficacy and tends to increase side effects. If a satisfactory response does not occur within one week, increase the dose to 50 mg nightly in children under 12 years; children over 12 may receive up to 75 mg nightly. Dosage should be tapered off gradually rather than abruptly discontinued; this may reduce the tendency to relapse. Consideration should be given to instituting a drug free period following an adequate therapeutic trial with a favorable response. Medication should be given one hour before bedtime. Children who relapse when the drug is discontinued do not always respond to a subsequent course of treatment. Evidence suggests that in early night bedwetters, the drug is more effective given earlier and in divided amounts, i.e., 25 mg in midafternoon, repeated at bedtime. Initially, an oral dose of 25 mg/day should be tried in children aged 6 and older.
NDC. Bottles of 30. NDC Bottles of 100.
The safety and effectiveness of Tofranil as temporary adjunctive therapy for nocturnal enuresis in children less than 6 years of age has not been established.
Depending on the fraction of drug metabolized by P450 2D6, the increase in plasma concentration may be small, or quite large (8-fold increase in plasma AUC of the TCA). Poor metabolizers have higher than expected plasma concentrations of tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) when given usual doses. The biochemical activity of the drug metabolizing isozyme cytochrome P450 2D6 (debrisoquin hydroxylase) is reduced in a subset of the Caucasian population (about 7% to 10% of Caucasians are so-called “poor metabolizers”); reliable estimates of the prevalence of reduced P450 2D6 isozyme activity among Asian, African, and other populations are not yet available.
ECG changes of unknown significance have been reported in pediatric patients with doses twice this amount. A dose of 2.5 mg/kg/day of Tofranil should not be exceeded in childhood.
The extent to which SSRI -TCA interaction may pose clinical problems will depend on the degree of inhibition and the pharmacokinetics of the SSRI involved. The drugs that inhibit cytochrome P450 2D6 include some that are not metabolized by the enzyme (quinidine; cimetidine) and many that are substrates for P450 2D6 (many other antidepressants, phenothiazines, and the Type 1C antiarrhythmics propafenone and flecainide). Nevertheless, caution is indicated in the coadministration of TCAs with any of the SSRIs and also in switching from one class to the other. In addition, certain drugs inhibit the activity of this isozyme and make normal metabolizers resemble poor metabolizers. While all the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), e.g., fluoxetine, sertraline, and paroxetine, inhibit P450 2D6, they may vary in the extent of inhibition. Of particular importance, sufficient time must elapse before initiating TCA treatment in a patient being withdrawn from fluoxetine, given the long half-life of the parent and active metabolite (at least 5 weeks may be necessary). An individual who is stable on a given dose of TCA may become abruptly toxic when given one of these inhibiting drugs as concomitant therapy.
Tablets 25 mg - round, biconvex, coral-reddish brown, sugar-coated tablet, imprinted with M on one side and “25” on the other side in black.
home drugs a-z list side effects drug center tofranil (imipramine) drug.
Numbness, tingling, paresthesias of extremities; incoordination, ataxia, tremors; peripheral neuropathy ; extrapyramidal symptoms; seizures, alterations in EEG patterns; tinnitus.
Inactive Ingredients: Calcium phosphate, cellulose compounds, docusate sodium, iron oxides, magnesium stearate, polyethylene glycol, povidone, sodium starch glycolate, sucrose, talc, and titanium dioxide.
Extreme caution should be used when this drug is given to: patients with cardiovascular disease because of the possibility of conduction defects, arrhythmias, congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, strokes, and tachycardia. These patients require cardiac surveillance at all dosage levels of the drug;.
Table 1 Age Range Drug-Placebo Difference in Number of Cases of Suicidality per 1000 Patients Treated Increases Compared to Placebo < 18 14 additional cases 18 - 24 5 additional cases Decreases Compared to Placebo 25 - 64 1 fewer case ≥ 65 6 fewer cases.
NDC Bottles of 100. NDC. Bottles of 30.
Caution should be exercised when imipramine hydrochloride is used with agents that lower blood pressure. Imipramine hydrochloride may potentiate the effects of CNS depressant drugs.
patients with history of urinary retention, or history of narrow-angle glaucoma because of the drug's anticholinergic properties; hyperthyroid patients or those on thyroid medication because of the possibility of cardiovascular toxicity;
Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction : hives; difficult breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.
The pupillary dilation that occurs following use of many antidepressant drugs including Tofranil may trigger an angle-closure attack in a patient with anatomically narrow angles who does not have a patent iridectomy.
Report any new or worsening symptoms to your doctor, such as: mood or behavior changes, anxiety, panic attacks, trouble sleeping, or if you feel impulsive, irritable, agitated, hostile, aggressive, restless, hyperactive (mentally or physically), more depressed, or have thoughts about suicide or hurting yourself.
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
There were suicides in the adult trials, but the number was not sufficient to reach any conclusion about drug effect on suicide. No suicides occurred in any of the pediatric trials.
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Confusional states (especially in the elderly) with hallucinations, disorientation, delusions; anxiety, restlessness, agitation; insomnia and nightmares; hypomania ; exacerbation of psychosis.
Though not indicative of addiction, abrupt cessation of treatment after prolonged therapy may produce nausea, headache, and malaise.
It is unknown whether the suicidality risk extends to longer-term use, i.e., beyond several months. However, there is substantial evidence from placebo-controlled maintenance trials in adults with depression that the use of antidepressants can delay the recurrence of depression.
If no response after two weeks, increase to 250 to 300 mg/day. Initially, 100 mg/day in divided doses gradually increased to 200 mg/day as required.
One to three weeks of treatment may be needed before optimal therapeutic effects are evident. For the relief of symptoms of depression. Endogenous depression is more likely to be alleviated than other depressive states.
Manufactured by: Patheon Inc., Whitby, Ontario, Canada, L1N 5Z5. Manufactured for: Mallinckrodt Inc., Hazelwood, MO 63042 USA.
A major depressive episode may be the initial presentation of bipolar disorder. It is generally believed (though not established in controlled trials) that treating such an episode with an antidepressant alone may increase the likelihood of precipitation of a mixed/ manic episode in patients at risk for bipolar disorder. Whether any of the symptoms described above represent such a conversion is unknown. However, prior to initiating treatment with an antidepressant, patients with depressive symptoms should be adequay screened to determine if they are at risk for bipolar disorder; such screening should include a detailed psychiatric history, including a family history of suicide, bipolar disorder, and depression. It should be noted that imipramine hydrochloride is not approved for use in treating bipolar depression.
Skin rash, petechiae, urticaria, itching, photosensitization; edema (general or of face and tongue); drug fever; cross-sensitivity with desipramine.
Patients should be warned that imipramine hydrochloride may enhance the CNS depressant effects of alcohol (see WARNINGS ).
Initially, 75 mg/day increased to 150 mg/day. Dosages over 200 mg/day are not recommended. Maintenance, 50 to 150 mg/day.
Dispense in tight container (USP) with a child-resistant closure.
Imipramine hydrochloride USP is a white to off-white, odorless, or practically odorless crystalline powder. It is freely soluble in water and in alcohol, soluble in acetone, and insoluble in ether and in benzene.
In occasional susceptible patients or in those receiving anticholinergic drugs (including antiparkinsonism agents) in addition, the atropine -like effects may become more pronounced (e.g., paralytic ileus ). Close supervision and careful adjustment of dosage is required when imipramine hydrochloride is administered concomitantly with anticholinergic drugs.
NDC. NDC Bottles of 100. Bottles of 30.
patients with a history of seizure disorder because this drug has been shown to lower the seizure threshold;
Note - Although the listing which follows includes a few adverse reactions which have not been reported with this specific drug, the pharmacological similarities among the tricyclic antidepressant drugs require that each of the reactions be considered when Tofranil is administered.
Gynecomastia in the male; breast enlargement and galactorrhea in the female; increased or decreased libido, impotence ; testicular swelling; elevation or depression of blood sugar levels; inappropriate antidiuretic hormone ( ADH ) secretion syndrome.
Consideration should be given to changing the therapeutic regimen, including possibly discontinuing the medication, in patients whose depression is persistently worse, or who are experiencing emergent suicidality or symptoms that might be precursors to worsening depression or suicidality, especially if these symptoms are severe, abrupt in onset, or were not part of the patient's presenting symptoms.
It is designated 5-3-(dimethylamino)propyl-10,11-dihydro-5 H -dibenz-azepine monohydrochloride. Its structural formula is:. Tofranil, imipramine hydrochloride USP, the original tricyclic antidepressant, is a member of the dibenzazepine group of compounds.
There was considerable variation in risk of suicidality among drugs, but a tendency toward an increase in the younger patients for almost all drugs studied. The risk differences (drug vs. The pooled analyses of placebo-controlled trials in adults with MDD or other psychiatric disorders included a total of 295 short-term trials (median duration of 2 months) of 11 antidepressant drugs in over 77,000 patients. The pooled analyses of placebo-controlled trials in children and adolescents with MDD, obsessive compulsive disorder ( OCD ), or other psychiatric disorders included a total of 24 short-term trials of 9 antidepressant drugs in over 4400 patients. There were differences in absolute risk of suicidality across the different indications, with the highest incidence in MDD. These risk differences (drug-placebo difference in the number of cases of suicidality per 1000 patients treated) are provided in Table 1. placebo), however, were relatively stable within age strata and across indications.
ECG changes of unknown significance have been reported in pediatric patients with doses twice this amount. A dose of 2.5 mg/kg/day should not be exceeded.
May be useful as temporary adjunctive therapy in reducing enuresis in children aged 6 years and older, after possible organic causes have been excluded by appropriate tests. The effectiveness of treatment may decrease with continued drug administration. In patients having daytime symptoms of frequency and urgency, examination should include voiding cystourethrography and cystoscopy, as necessary.
Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), both adult and pediatric, may experience worsening of their depression and/or the emergence of suicidal ideation and behavior (suicidality) or unusual changes in behavior, whether or not they are taking antidepressant medications, and this risk may persist until significant remission occurs. Short-term studies did not show an increase in the risk of suicidality with antidepressants compared to placebo in adults beyond age 24; there was a reduction with antidepressants compared to placebo in adults aged 65 and older. There has been a longstanding concern, however, that antidepressants may have a role in inducing worsening of depression and the emergence of suicidality in certain patients during the early phases of treatment. Suicide is a known risk of depression and certain other psychiatric disorders, and these disorders themselves are the strongest predictors of suicide. Pooled analyses of short-term placebo-controlled trials of antidepressant drugs (SSRIs and others) showed that these drugs increase the risk of suicidal thinking and behavior (suicidality) in children, adolescents, and young adults (ages 18 to 24) with major depressive disorder (MDD) and other psychiatric disorders.
Orthostatic hypotension, hypertension, tachycardia, palpitation, myocardial infarction, arrhythmias, heart block, ECG changes, precipitation of congestive heart failure, stroke.
Furthermore, whenever one of these other drugs is withdrawn from co-therapy, an increased dose of tricyclic antidepressant may be required. It is desirable to monitor TCA plasma levels whenever a TCA is going to be coadministered with another drug known to be an inhibitor of P450 2D6. Concomitant use of tricyclic antidepressants with drugs that can inhibit cytochrome P450 2D6 may require lower doses than usually prescribed for either the tricyclic antidepressant or the other drug.
Initially, 30 to 40 mg/day; it is generally not necessary to exceed 100 mg/day.
Avoid the use of preparations, such as decongestants and local anesthetics, that contain any sympathomimetic amine (e.g., epinephrine, norepinephrine), since it has been reported that tricyclic antidepressants can potentiate the effects of catecholamines.
C 19 H 24 N 2. HCI MW = 316.88.
All patients being treated with antidepressants for any indication should be monitored appropriay and observed closely for clinical worsening, suicidality, and unusual changes in behavior, especially during the initial few months of a course of drug therapy, or at times of dose changes, either increases or decreases.
Suicidality and Antidepressant Drugs.
Tablets 50 mg - round, biconvex, coral-reddish brown, sugar-coated tablet, imprinted with M on one side and “50” on the other side in black.
Prescriptions for imipramine hydrochloride should be written for the smallest quantity of tablets consistent with good patient management, in order to reduce the risk of overdose. Such monitoring should include daily observation by families and caregivers. Families and caregivers of patients being treated with antidepressants for major depressive disorder or other indications, both psychiatric and nonpsychiatric, should be alerted about the need to monitor patients for the emergence of agitation, irritability, unusual changes in behavior, and the other symptoms described above, as well as the emergence of suicidality, and to report such symptoms immediay to healthcare providers.
Call your doctor at once if you have:Imipramine